Theories Of Charles Darwin
From the Theory of Evolution to the theory of gravity and from the scientific theory of general relativity to Newtonian mechanics, there are many smart people that have contributed in developing theories that govern our world.
One of them was Charles Darwin (February 12th, 1809 – April 19th, 1882). He’s probably one of the most important scientist in history.
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution states that all species of organisms arise and develop through a natural process of selection. This is his most important contribution to science.
Charles Darwin Theory Of Natural Selection
The theory of evolution by natural selection is one of the best substantiated in the history of science, supported by evidence from a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including paleontology, geology, genetics and developmental biology.
All life on Earth is related and has descended from a common ancestor: the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). LUCA was the first life form and all organisms are descended from it.
Through millions of years and billions of chance genetic mutations, life diversified into 1.5 million species alive today. There is no evidence that any one species was created separately from another; they all evolved from earlier precedents.
Natural selection is a gradual process. Over many generations, small changes can accumulate and lead to large differences between populations, even to the point that new species form.
Examples include the evolution of wingless insects on windy islands or blind cave-dwelling animals.
Evolution happens because individual organisms within a population vary in their traits — for example, some may be taller than others. In addition, some traits are heritable — for example, if a parent is tall, its offspring may also be tall.
If tallness is positively correlated with some positive outcome — for example, if being tall makes it more likely that an organism will survive and reproduce — then individuals who are tall on average will leave more offspring than short individuals.
As a result of this differential reproductive success, the gene pool of the population will shift over time toward taller individuals.
Charles Darwin Theory Of Human Evolution
The great British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) is widely known as the father of evolutionary biology. His most famous work, On the Origin of Species, brilliantly elucidated the theory that species evolve over time through a process of natural selection.
Darwin’s other writings, including The Descent of Man and Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals (which were published after his death), also contributed to his reputation as the foremost authority on human evolution.
However, Darwin’s theory is more than a simple story about where we came from. It’s actually four separate but related theories: (1) common descent, (2) gradualism, (3) population speciation, and (4) natural selection.
Each is powerful on its own and together they provide a comprehensive explanation for the history of life on Earth.
Charles Darwin Theory Of Survival Of The Fittest
The theory of survival of the fittest states that struggle is essential for life and ultimately leads to the survival of the fittest. He believed that species evolved naturally over time to adapt to their environments, which led to new species being created.
Darwin’s theory of natural selection is often presented as an argument for war and competition, but it actually explains cooperation among species as well.
The struggle for existence occurs when there are too many individuals in a population, so that not all can survive long enough to reproduce. There are several ways that organisms can be adapted to their environment.
A common example is the giraffe, which has a long neck so it can reach high branches in trees.
Other ways that organisms are adapted include camouflage, which helps them hide from predators; wings, so they can fly away; claws to defend themselves; and bodies that can move swiftly or burrow into the ground for safety.
The best-adapted species have a greater chance of surviving and passing on their genes within the gene pool than less-adapted ones do.”
Charles Darwin Theory Of Gradualism
The theory of gradualism is a theory that the evolution of species occurs through very slow, small changes. This is the most popular theory that scientists subscribe to today.
Evolution usually happens over an extremely long period of time. Even though natural selection is a powerful force, it works slowly and gradually. Gradualism is associated with the work of Charles Darwin, who was the first scientist to propose his theory of evolution.
According to gradualism, populations are not affected by forces of natural selection until they have changed to such an extent that they can no longer be considered part of their original species. Scientists have provided several examples to illustrate gradualism.
For example, consider the fish species known as sticklebacks, which live in shallow water near rocks and coral reefs. The sticklebacks have spines on their backs, which help them hunt for food in rocky areas and protect themselves from predators.
However, some stickleback populations live in lakes where there are no predators and where rocks are not as common. In these environments, sticklebacks do not require spines for protection or hunting purposes.
As a result, over time, populations living in these environments lose their spines and develop smaller bodies and thinner tails.
Charles Darwin Theory Of Multiplication Of Species
The theory of multiplication of species (also called the Darwinian theory) is a scientific theory that explains the origin of hundreds of thousands of species known to man.
It also explains how so many living organisms can be related to each other. This theory was proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859, who wrote a book called “The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.”
However, Darwin did not publish his findings until 1859, when he learned that another scientist had a similar theory.
Charles Darwin spent considerable time studying the natural world. He observed that plants and animals exhibited variation within each species—some individuals were larger or smaller than others, some were more active, etc. But all members of a particular species shared certain characteristics with one another.
They had the same number of legs, eyes, wings, etc., and they could mate with one another to produce offspring. Most importantly for this discussion, Darwin observed that all members of a species could mate with one another to produce young ones.
This meant that the variation that existed among the members within each species occurred due to some process involving mating.
Charles Darwin Theory Of Adaptation
His theory of natural selection stated that species could adapt to their surroundings in order to survive. This was based on observations made during the voyage of the Beagle in the 1830s.
He found that some species of animal had become extinct, but others had adapted and survived.
Darwin’s theory was published in 1859 in his book On the Origin of Species. It stated that:
A variety of different organisms were produced More were produced than could survive They varied from each other – some more successfully adapted to their environment than others Those with the best adaptation would survive and pass their characteristics on to their offspring Over time, new species would evolve and become adapted to their environment
Charles Darwin Theory Of Birds
In his book On the Origin of Species in 1859, Darwin discusses the evolution of birds and feathers several times. In Chapter 4 he discusses the idea that birds evolved from a common ancestor with reptiles, and suggests that feathers probably originally evolved as insulation;
In Chapter 6 he argues that bird wings probably originally evolved as protective covering for the body, as opposed to being used for flight, but that they then were modified into wings;
In Chapter 8 he argues that birds’ beaks probably originally evolved to help them crack open seeds and nuts, but later developed into different shapes;
In Chapter 9 he suggests that the development of flight would have been a gradual process, not an abrupt innovation.
Charles Darwin Other Achievements And Awards
In an 1890 Royal Society meeting held in honor of the bicentennial of Darwin’s birth and the centennial of the publication of The Origin of Species, Francis Galton proposed a prize for “the best memorial” to be put up in honour of Darwin.
Galton proposed that it should be a bronze bust of Darwin set on a marble pedestal ornamented with four bronze panels depicting various aspects of his work. A long-running dispute ensued over what aspects should be shown on these panels.